Friday, December 08, 2006
Christians Part of 2.2 million Killed In Sudan
The first real independence attempt was made in 1924 by a group of Sudanese military officers known as The White Flag Association. The group was led by Ali Abdullatif and Abdul Fadil Almazzen. The attempt was ultimately defeated by the assassination of the founders.
Afterwards, the newly elected government went ahead with the process of Sudanization of the state's government, with the help and supervision of an international committee. In November 1955, it declared the intentions of the Sudanese people to exercise their right to independence. This was duly granted and on January 1, 1956, Sudan was formally declared independent. In a special ceremony held at the People's Palace, the British and Egyptian flags were brought down and the new Sudanese flag, composed of green, blue and yellow stripes, was raised in their place.
Historically, the North of Sudan had closer ties with Egypt and was predominantly Arab and Muslim while the South was predominantly black, with a mixture of Christianity and Animism. These divisions had been further emphasized by the British policy of ruling the North and South under separate administrations. From 1924 on it was illegal for people living above the 10th parallel to go further south and for people below the 8th parallel to go further north. The law was ostensibly enacted to prevent the spread of malaria and other tropical diseases that had ravaged British troops, as well as to prevent Northern Sudanese from raiding Southern tribes for slaves. The result was increased isolation between the already distinct north and south and arguably laid the seeds of conflict in the years to come.
The resulting conflict, known as the First Sudanese Civil War, lasted from 1955 to 1972 and was heavy influenced by support from Islamic jihadists seeking to expand Salafist Arabic fundamentalism. In 1972, a cessation of the north-south conflict was agreed upon under the terms of the Addis Ababa Agreement. This led to a ten-year hiatus in the conflict.
In 1989 a coup d'état brought control of Khartoum to the hands of Umar al Bashir and the National Islamic Front headed by Dr. Hassan Turabi. Both groups are Sunni fundamentalists drawing most of their ideology from the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Together they formed the Popular Defense Forces (al Difaa al Shaabi) and began to invade the tribal south and eliminate the Christian minority.
The attempted genocide went on for more than twenty years, including the use of Sukhoi sorties, Tupolev bombers and napalm to devasting effect on villages and tribal rebels alike, resulting in the deaths of 2.2 million Christians, Animists, and black Muslims, and displacing roughly 4.5 million people within Sudan and into neighbouring countries. It damaged Sudan's economy and led to food shortages, resulting in starvation and malnutrition. The lack of investment during this time, particularly in the south, meant a generation lost access to basic health services, education, and jobs.
In 1992 Turabi arranged a conference in Khartoum, amongst his guests were the NIF of Sudan, the FIS of Algeria, Gamaat Islamiya of Egypt, Islamic Jihad, Hamas and Islamic Jihad of Palestine, the graduates of madrassas (Islamic schools) that later become the Taliban, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Hezbollah, Saddam Hussein's Baath party, and Lebanon's Salafists.
On September 9, 2004 the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell termed the Darfur conflict as a "genocide," acknowledging it as one of the worst humanitarian crises of the 21st century. There have been reports that the Janjaweed have been launching raids, bombings, and attacks on villages, killing civilians based on ethnicity, raping women, stealing land, goods, and herds of livestock. So far, over 2 million civilians have been displaced and the death toll is variously estimated at 200,000  to 400,000 killed.
On May 5, 2006, the Sudanese government and Darfur's largest rebel group the SLM (Sudan Liberation Movement) signed the Darfur Peace Agreement, which aimed at ending the three-year long conflict. The agreement specified the disarmament of the janjaweed and the disbandment of the the rebel forces, and aimed at establishing a temporal government in which the rebels could take part. The agreement, which was brokered by the African Union, however, was not signed by all of the rebel groups.
Since the agreement was signed, however, there still have been reports of wide-spread violence throughout the region. A new rebel group has emerged called the "National Redemption Front" (which is made up of the 4 main rebel groups who refused to sign the May peace agreement). Recently, both the Sudanese government and government-sponsored militias have launched large offensives against the rebel groups, resulting in the more deaths and more displacements. Clashes among the rebel groups have also contributed to the violence. Recent fighting along the Chad border has left hundreds of soldiers and rebel forces dead and nearly a quarter of a million refugees cut from aid. In addition, villages have been continuously bombed and more innocent civilians have been killed. UNICEF recently reported that around 80 infants die each day in Darfur as a result of malnutrition.
The people in Darfur are predominantly black Africans of Muslim beliefs, whereas the Janjaweed militia is made up of Arabs. Some believe the Janjaweed militia is the Khartoum government's unofficial fighting force, allowing the government to disguisedly break human rights rule in Darfur.
In looking more in depth to the conflicts in Sudan. I see that basically it is the forced imposing of Sharia Law that seems to be the underlying factor there.
Does this sound familiar? It should. That is the ultimate goal of Islam. And it started many many years ago.
According to Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani a 10th century Maliki jurist:
- Jihad is a precept of Divine institution. Its performance by certain individuals may dispense others from it. We Malikis maintain that it is preferable not to begin hostilities with the enemy before having invited the latter to embrace the religion of Allah except where the enemy attacks first. They have the alternative of either converting to Islam or paying the poll tax (jizya), short of which war will be declared against them.
1 Thessalonians 5:1-28
1: But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you.
2: For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night.
3: For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape.
4: But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief.
5: Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness.
6: Therefore let us not sleep, as do others; but let us watch and be sober.
7: For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night.
8: But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation.
9: For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ,
10: Who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.
11: Wherefore comfort yourselves together, and edify one another, even as also ye do.
12: And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you;
13: And to esteem them very highly in love for their work's sake. And be at peace among yourselves.
14: Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men.
15: See that none render evil for evil unto any man; but ever follow that which is good, both among yourselves, and to all men.
16: Rejoice evermore.
17: Pray without ceasing.
18: In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you.
19: Quench not the Spirit.
20: Despise not prophesyings.
21: Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.
22: Abstain from all appearance of evil.
23: And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
24: Faithful is he that calleth you, who also will do it.
25: Brethren, pray for us.
26: Greet all the brethren with an holy kiss.
27: I charge you by the Lord that this epistle be read unto all the holy brethren.
28: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
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